The International Criminal Court (ICC) has for the first time ordered a war criminal to pay reparations to victims of his atrocities.
Germain Katanga, an ex-militia leader in the Democratic Republic of Congo, should pay $1m (£800,000) to villagers targeted in 2003, judges ruled.
But as he was insolvent, the ICC Trust Fund for Victims should consider making the payment, the judges added.
Katanga followed proceedings via video link from jail in DR Congo.
The ICC sentenced him to 12 years in 2014 for aiding and abetting war crimes.
He was behind the 2003 massacre of hundreds of villagers in north-eastern DR Congo.