Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has warned the Netherlands it will “pay the price” for harming ties after two of his ministers were barred.
Mr Erdogan said: “We will teach them international diplomacy.”
The two ministers were blocked from addressing Turkish expatriates in Rotterdam on Saturday, with one of them escorted to the German border.
The Dutch government says such events would stoke tensions days before the Netherlands’ general election.
The ministers were trying to win support among expatriate voters for a referendum on expanding Turkish presidential powers.
Fatma Betul Sayan Kaya, Turkey’s family minister, had arrived by road on Saturday but was denied entry to the consulate in Rotterdam and was taken to the German border by Dutch police.
Foreign Minister Mevlut Cavusoglu tried to fly in but was refused entry.
Water cannon and riot police on horseback were deployed to disperse about 1,000 people protesting outside the Turkish consulate in Rotterdam overnight.